The complete phrase is "Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete" which is almost always abbreviated to QbA in the US and on the wine label. It means "quality wine from a specified region." It is a legal designation under the 1971 German wine laws.
A QbA wine must have a minimum sugar level at harvest, but may be chaptalized (have sugar added). It must come from one of the 11 specific growing regions of Germany, and the name of the region must be on the label.
"Qualitatswein mit Pradikat" which translates from German to "quality wine with distinction." Almost always abbreviated in the US, and on the wine label.
A legal designation under the German wine laws of 1971. As well as this phrase the label must identify the wine as belonging to one of these six classes from driest to sweetest: Kabinett , Spatlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese, Eiswein or Trokenbeeranauslese (see each listed individually).
The rules for QmP are similar to those of QbA, except that the wine may not be chaptalized (have sugar added). These are the highest quality wines made in Germany.
Quarts de Chaume (cahr duh show'm)
A Grand Cru vineyard in the Coteaux du Layon district of the Loire, France. This is a sweet Chenin Blanc white wine that ages very well. It is rare, almost unknown outside of the area, and one of my favorite wines.
The Portugese term for a vineyard estate. Similar to "Chateau" in Bordeaux, France.